Affixes

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Many new words are formed by adding an affix to the beginning or end of a root word. method of understanding the meanings of new words is to analyze the different measures of the word and the meanings of those parts. 

When affixes are added to the beginning of roots or root words, they are called prefixes.

For example, the most common prefix is un-, which meant not or opposite of. 

If you add un- to the word happy, the new word becomes unhappy, which means not happy. 

When affixes are added to the end of roots or root words, they are called suffixes. The most common suffixes are -s and -es, which mean more than one (or the plural) of the word. Adding -es to wish, changes the meaning o the word to more than one wish.


Affix Definition

You can use the verb 'affix' to describe your actions. When studying the English language, an affix is a group of letters that are added to the beginning or the end of a root word that changes the word's meaning.

An affix is a word element--a prefix, suffix, or infix--that can be attached to a base or root to form a new word or a new form of a word. 

Affixes modify the meaning and linguistic class of their stems in numerous ways. The study of focused parts of a word is known as morphology. The study shows affixation as a way of word formation; in order to see the meanings of letters added at the beginning or end of words, and to look within the changes words meet with when affixes are joined to them.

Examples of Affixes

incapable
(The affix is the prefix in.)

ex-President
(The affix is the prefix ex-.)

laughing
(The affix is the suffix ing.)

The root is the key to building new words. For example forgive, measure, advantage, are the core words or roots in unforgivable, disadvantageous and immeasurable. 

     Prefix             Root Word             Suffix       New Word 
 Im-  measure  able  immeasurable
 Dis-  advantage  ous        disadvantageous       
 Un-  help  ful  unhelpful
 Un-  forgive  able  unforgivable


List of Affixes

An affix that comes at the beginning of a word is called a prefix. Each of these prefixes gives the reader a hint about the word's meaning. Recognize many prefixes from the list below:
    • an- (to be without)
    • anti- (against)
    • bi- (two)
    • contra- (against)
    • dis- (not)
    • ex- (without; not including)
    • homo- (the same)
    • inter- (between)
    • micro- (small)
    • pre- (before)
    • tetra- (four)
    • tri- (three)
    • un- (not)
    • uni- (one)
A suffix is series of letters added at the end of a word. The list below includes common suffixes that happens on a daily basis:
    • -able (able to do)
    • -acy (quality)
    • -er (someone who does something)
    • -esque (similar to)
    • -ish (having a similar quality)
    • -ism (a belief)
    • -ist (someone who does something)
    • -less (without)

Types of Affixes

Affix, is a grammatical component that is joined with a stem, word, or phrase to create consequent and modulated forms. There are three types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. 
    • A prefix occurs at the beginning of a word or stem (sub-mit, im-possible, pre-determine, un-willing); 
    • A suffix occurs at the end of a word or stem (wonder-ful, cheerful-ly, depend-ent, act-ion); 
    • An infix occurs in the middle of a word or stem
English has no infixes, however they are found in American languages, Greek, Tagalog, and elsewhere. An example from Tagalog is the alteration of the form suilat “a writing,” to the form sinuilat, “that which was written,” through the addition of an infix, -in-. 

Examples of English inflectional suffixes are illustrated by the -s of “cats,” the -er of “longer,” and the -ed of “asked.” 

Below is a table showing some kinds of affixes with examples:

Affix   Relationship to root   Example
 suffix  Occurs at the end of a root or stem  happi-ness
 prefix  Occurs in the front of a root or stem  un-happy
 infix  Occurs inside of a root or stem  bumili 'buy' 
 suprafix  Superimposed on one or more syllables in the root or stem as a suprasegmental       stress in the words 'produce, n. and pro'duce, v  
  circumfix    Occurs in two parts on both outer edges of a root or stem  kabaddangan 'help'
 simulfix  Replaces one or more phonemes in the root or stem  tooth + plural > teeth

Examples of Affixes

Mentioned below are the example of Affixes:

 a-, an-   atypical, antecedent
 co-  co-pilot
 com-, con-   companion, contract
 de-  devalue
 dis-  disappear
 en-  enclose
 ex-  ex-minister
 -ion, -tion  attraction, attrition
 il-, im-, in-, ir-   illegal, impractical, inconsiderate, irresponsible 
 non-  nonstarter
 pre-, pro-  precede, project
 un-  unfinished
 -able  comfortable
 -ed  danced
 -en, -er, -est  golden, worker, nicest
 -ful  careful
 -ing  singing, learning
 -less, -ly  fearless, nicely
 -ous, -eous, -ious  erroneous, joyous, 
 -s, -es  tables, foxes
 -y  happy, jumpy