Parts of Speech

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Although there might be a lot of differences between modern English and Ancient Greek, the same parts of speech and their functions are used in both and have continued practically the same across time and cultures.  Usually, the first step in charting a sentence is recognizing what part of speech, a word belongs to or to categorize group of words according to their function in a sentence.

Parts of speech is an important chapter of English Grammar which includes words that we come across in our day to day life while listening, writing, reading or seven speaking anything in English Literature. Each character of the Parts of speech will help identify and understand grammar and its usage in an exciting way. The words used for any purpose in any way are divided into eight classes termed as “Parts of Speech” . 

The Names of these vital parts of speech are:
  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Adjective
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection


Types of Parts of Speech

Noun


This part of speech is probably the one we're most familiar with since nouns identify pretty much anything we can see, hear, touch, taste, smell or think. A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, idea, or quality. All objects except persons are called things; hence persons and things include all objects. Objects are of two kinds – object of sense and object of thoughts.
 
An object of sense is an object that we can see, feel, hear, smell, touch or taste.
Example: pain, thunder, sweetness, moon, thunder, resistance. 

An object of thought is an object that we cannot see, feel, touch, smell, hear, or taste, but can only speak or think of. Example: memory, childhood, nothing, nonsense, mind, nullity, modesty. 

Examples:

Margret Thatcher, Abraham Lincoln, London, The Ganges, The Bible, education, wisdom, beauty, army, character, water, sugar, milk, oil, silver, gold, ink, pen, book, England, team, jury, flock, herd etc. 

Pronoun

A pronoun is a word standing for a noun or for some word or words equivalent to a noun. These words are used in the place of nouns, especially when we already know what noun we're talking about. For instance, instead of repeating people's names over and over, we can replace these nouns with pronouns like 'she,' 'they' or 'it.' People might be nouns, but 'you' and 'I' are pronouns.

Examples:
  • Personal pronouns:  I, mine, me; you, yours; he, his, him; she, hers, her; it, its; we, ours, us; they, theirs, them.
  • Interrogative pronouns:  who, whose, whom, which, what
  • Relative pronouns (include):  who, who, whose, which, that;  whoever, whomever, whichever
  • Demonstrative pronouns:  this, that, these, those
  • Indefinite pronouns (include):  all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, many, neither, nobody, no one, none, one, others, some, somebody, someone, such
  • Intensive or reflexive pronouns:  myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves

Adjectives

Ever since we were kids we learned about colors and numbers, long before we even knew they were adjectives, they made language more colorful from an early age. Adjectives are words used to modify nouns or pronouns, usually by providing extra details about them. An Adjective describes or limits a noun. An Adjective is a word that can be put before a noun answering the questions:
  • Whose?
  • Which?
  • Of what sort or In what condition?
  • In what order?
  • How many?
  • How much?
Examples:  
  • tall, young, pretty, light, blue, new, white  ' can be made a little more descriptive by adding adjectives: The tall, young, pretty girl is wearing a light blue dress with her new white shoes.

  • 'The dog fetched the balls' can be made a little more descriptive by adding adjectives: 'The furry brown dog fetched five red balls.'

Verb

Nouns might be important, but without verbs, they wouldn't be doing anything. Often referred to as action words, verbs are part of speech responsible for telling us what nouns are doing or experiencing. A verb expresses an action or a condition or a state of being it means to act, or to receive an act.

Example:
Love  Run   Read
To love Will run May Read 
To have love Will have run  May have read 
  To have been loved       Will have been run      May have been read   


Adverbs


With adjectives, we can answer questions like 'How many?' or 'What kind?' With adverbs, though, we get answers to things like 'When?' or 'In what way?' Instead of modifying nouns and pronouns, adverbs are used to provide more details and describe verbs, adjectives and even other adverbs. These words frequently end in –ly and are often modified. Adverbs usually tell how (for example: slowly), when (e.g., lately), where (e.g., there), how much (e.g., very), or why (e.g., therefore).

Preposition


A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun as its object and another part of a sentence. There are approximately 80-100 prepositions in the English language. Prepositions are words that introduce the following information to the reader:
  1. Where something takes place (at the shop)
  2. When or why something takes place (before dinner)
  3. General descriptive information (the guy with the cool tattoo)
Examples:  about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beneath, between, beyond, beside, besides, by, down, during, except, from, for, in, inside, into, like, near, next, of, off, on, out, out of, outside, over, past, round, since, than, through, till, to,  toward, towards, under, underneath, unless, until, upon, up, with, within, without.

Conjunction

A conjunction connects words, phrases, and clauses.

Coordinate conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal value:  and, or, nor, but (and sometimes for).  

e.g., The cat and the dog are hungry.

Correlative conjunctions occur in pairs:  both-and, either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also.  

e.g., Both the fish and the snake are thirsty.

Subordinate conjunctions connect unequal clauses (dependent clauses with independent clauses). They include:  after, although, as, because, before, if, since, than, though, unless, until, when, where, while. 

e.g., After they ate, they had dessert.

Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion; used in mere exclamation and has no grammatical relation to any other word; usually it is followed by an exclamation mark.

Examples:  Oh!  Ah!  Wow!  Darn!  Gosh!  Golly!  Gee!  Ow!  Ouch!  Yikes!  Holy moly!  Yippee!  Hooray!  Boo!   Whew!  Adieu! Bravo! Ho! Hey? Welcome!



Examples of Parts of Speech

Examples of Parts of Speech

Well,  she   and   young    Johnny   walk    to   school   slowly. 
 Interjection    Pronoun   Conjunction   Adjective   Noun  Verb  Preposition   Noun  Adverb

She  ran  to  the    station      quickly  
 Pronoun   Verb    Preposition   Adjective   Noun  Adverb 

She  likes  big  dogs   but   hate   them 
 Pronoun    Verb   Adjective    Noun   Conjunctions   Pronoun    Verb   Pronoun