Antecedents

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A pronoun antecedent is a word that comes afore a pronoun to which the pronoun refers. The word “antecedent” means something that precedes something else. Since the pronoun replaces the noun, it has to decide in number.  So, if the antecedent, or word that comes before, is singular, then the pronoun that takes its place must also be singular and vice versa.

There are numerous rules relating to the use of indefinite pronouns as antecedents and the pronoun antecedent arrangement. The following indefinite pronouns are singular and need a singular pronoun: one, no one, nobody, everyone, someone, anyone, somebody, everybody, anybody, nothing, something, anything, everything, each, neither, either. An example is “Everything here has its own carton.” The plural indefinite pronouns: several, few, both, and many, need to have a plural pronoun, like in this sentence: “Several are there because of their aspects.”

Examples:
  • A good story must have an excellence about it; it must have characters, narration, setting, and dialogues.
  • David plays football in the yard. All the children have gathered there.
  • The bird ate the fish quickly and immediately it died.
  • When children are happy, they clap to express their pleasure.


What is an Antecedent

An antecedent is an expression or a word, phrase, clause, etc. that gives its meaning to a pro-form  such as pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc. A pro-form takes it’s meaning from its antecedent, e.g. Susan arrived late because traffic held her up. Pronouns are general words that have little meaning on their own. If you hear an acquaintance say, "She is gorgeous," you know your acquaintance is denoting to a singular, feminine being or object, but with just the pronoun ‘she’, you don't know if the conversation concerns a lady, a lioness, or a sedan. You cannot picture the ‘she’ until you know the antecedent, the word that this pronoun refers to or substitutes.

How to describe antecedents? 
Antecedents are events that happen before the behaviour. 


Third - Person Personal Pronouns 
 he, him, his, himself
 she, her, hers, herself
 it, its, itself
                    they, them, their, theirs, themselves                  

At other times, the antecedent might be the word, phrase, or clause that a demonstrative pronoun replaces.

                           Demonstrative Pronoun                         
 this, that, these, those

And sometimes the antecedent is the direction for a relative pronoun.

Relative Pronouns 
                    who, whom, whose, that, which                   

Singular indefinite pronouns are often antecedents. 

 Singular Indefinite Pronouns
 each, either, neither
 anybody, anyone, anything
                       everybody, everyone, everything                 
 nobody, no one, nothing
 somebody, someone, something


The nine pronoun-antecedent rules are as below – These rules are associated to the rules found in subject-verb agreement.

  1. A phrase or clause between the subject and verb does not change the number of the antecedent.
  2. Singular indefinite pronoun antecedents take singular pronoun referents on the contrary Plural indefinite pronoun antecedents require plural referents. Some indefinite pronouns that are altered by a prepositional phrase may be either singular or plural. 
  3. Compound subjects joined by and always take a plural referent.
  4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the referent pronoun agrees with the antecedent closer to the pronoun.
  5. Collective Nouns  such as group, jury, crowd, team, etc. may be singular or plural, depending on meaning.    
  6. Titles of single entities such as books, organizations, countries, etc. take a singular referent.
  7. Plural form subjects with a singular meaning take a singular referent such as news, measles, mumps, physics, etc.
  8. Every or Many a  before a noun or a series of nouns requires a singular referent.
  9. The number of   vs  A number of  before a subject:

Antecedent Examples

Mentioned below are the list of examples of Antecedent that you can learn from:
  • The man who lives next door lost his driving licence.
  • Marcus put his book on the table.
  • Mohit, did you see the fish which Lean caught?
  • Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are painting their house.
  • When you see the professor, please tell him I'll be 20 minutes late this evening.
  • Always be nice to those younger than you because they are the ones who will be writing about you.
  • Do you know if Marie invited Leslie to her party?
  • A judge is a law student who marks his own examination papers.
  • Cathy left Sharon's book on her desk. 
  • I like a woman with a head on her shoulders. I hate necks.
  • Gabriel called to say she will arrive at 9 o'clock.
  • I take my wife everywhere, but she keeps finding her way back. 
  • Louis, James, and I would like for you to come with us.
  • A liberal is a man too broad minded to take his own side in a quarrel. 
  • Jeff handed his father his glove. 
  • My eccentric aunty likes chocolate. She tells everyone to buy her chocolate.
  • Maggie lies all the time, which everybody knows about.
  • Someone called who offered to help. She was really friendly. 
  • Harry was helpful, and so was Sally.
  • The paragraph has in fact been checked by Vinay, but Sam won't do it.